The process of development involves mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels to arrive at the complex anatomical and physiological structure of an organism. The study of development can shed light into the processes of many diseases and disorders that afflict people worldwide.
Reblogged from medresearch  65 notes
medresearch:

Heart muscle in young children may be capable of regeneration
Image: Cardiac muscle from a 15 day old mouse. Red staining indicates the presence of a protein involved in cell division. In similar images from a mouse at day 14 and 16, none of the cells are red.
The entire heart muscle in young children may hold untapped potential for regeneration, new research suggests. For decades, scientists believed that after a child’s first few days of life, cardiac muscle cells did not divide. Instead, the assumption was that the heart could only grow by having the muscle cells become larger. Cracks were already appearing in that theory. But new findings in mice, published in May in Cell, provide a dramatic counterexample — with implications for the treatment of congenital heart disorders in humans. Researchers at Emory University School of Medicine have discovered that in young mice 15 days old, cardiac muscle cells undergo a precisely timed spurt of cell division lasting around a day. The total number of cardiac muscle cells increases by about 40 percent during this time, when the rest of the body is growing rapidly. [A 15-day-old mouse is roughly comparable to a child in kindergarten; puberty occurs at day 30-35 in mice.]
Funding: the research was supported by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, the American Heart Association, and the John and Mary Brock Diagnostic and Discovery Fund.
Full Story »

medresearch:

Heart muscle in young children may be capable of regeneration

Image: Cardiac muscle from a 15 day old mouse. Red staining indicates the presence of a protein involved in cell division. In similar images from a mouse at day 14 and 16, none of the cells are red.

The entire heart muscle in young children may hold untapped potential for regeneration, new research suggests.

For decades, scientists believed that after a child’s first few days of life, cardiac muscle cells did not divide. Instead, the assumption was that the heart could only grow by having the muscle cells become larger.

Cracks were already appearing in that theory. But new findings in mice, published in May in Cell, provide a dramatic counterexample — with implications for the treatment of congenital heart disorders in humans.

Researchers at Emory University School of Medicine have discovered that in young mice 15 days old, cardiac muscle cells undergo a precisely timed spurt of cell division lasting around a day. The total number of cardiac muscle cells increases by about 40 percent during this time, when the rest of the body is growing rapidly. [A 15-day-old mouse is roughly comparable to a child in kindergarten; puberty occurs at day 30-35 in mice.]

Funding: the research was supported by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, the American Heart Association, and the John and Mary Brock Diagnostic and Discovery Fund.

Full Story »

Hair cells: the sound-sensing cells in the ear
These cells get their name from the hairlike structures that extend from them into the fluid-filled tube of the inner ear. When sound reaches the ear, the hairs bend and the cells convert this movement into signals that are relayed to the brain. When we pump up the music in our cars or join tens of thousands of cheering fans at a football stadium, the noise can make the hairs bend so far that they actually break, resulting in long-term hearing loss.
Henning Horn, Brian Burke and Colin Stewart, Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore
Source

Hair cells: the sound-sensing cells in the ear

These cells get their name from the hairlike structures that extend from them into the fluid-filled tube of the inner ear. When sound reaches the ear, the hairs bend and the cells convert this movement into signals that are relayed to the brain. When we pump up the music in our cars or join tens of thousands of cheering fans at a football stadium, the noise can make the hairs bend so far that they actually break, resulting in long-term hearing loss.

Henning Horn, Brian Burke and Colin Stewart, Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore

Source

Reblogged from neurosciencenews  61 notes
neurosciencenews:

People with Bipolar Disorder are Bigger Risk Takers
Read the full article People with Bipolar Disorder are Bigger Risk Takers at NeuroscienceNews.com.
Research led by The University of Manchester has shown that circuits in the brain involved in pursuing and relishing rewarding experiences are more strongly activated in people with bipolar disorder – guiding them towards riskier gambles and away from safer ones.
The research is in Brain. (full open access)
Research:  “Decision-making and trait impulsivity in bipolar disorder are associated with reduced prefrontal regulation of striatal reward valuation” by Liam Mason, Noreen O’Sullivan, Daniela Montaldi, Richard P. Bentall and Wael El-Deredy in Brain. doi:10.1093/brain/awu152 (http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/06/24/brain.awu152.full)
Image: A person with bipolar disorder activating their dorsal frontal cortex. Credit University of Manchester.

neurosciencenews:

People with Bipolar Disorder are Bigger Risk Takers

Read the full article People with Bipolar Disorder are Bigger Risk Takers at NeuroscienceNews.com.

Research led by The University of Manchester has shown that circuits in the brain involved in pursuing and relishing rewarding experiences are more strongly activated in people with bipolar disorder – guiding them towards riskier gambles and away from safer ones.

The research is in Brain. (full open access)

Research:  “Decision-making and trait impulsivity in bipolar disorder are associated with reduced prefrontal regulation of striatal reward valuation” by Liam Mason, Noreen O’Sullivan, Daniela Montaldi, Richard P. Bentall and Wael El-Deredy in Brain. doi:10.1093/brain/awu152 (http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/06/24/brain.awu152.full)

Image: A person with bipolar disorder activating their dorsal frontal cortex. Credit University of Manchester.

Specimen collection: An essential tool
"With our ever-increasing footprint, humans now affect even the most remote corners of Earth. Because an estimated 86% of species on the planet remain unknown, our goal should be to document biodiversity as rigorously as possible through carefully planned collections so that it can be effectively preserved and understood. ”
Previous examples “cited to demonstrate the negative impact of scientific collecting have been carefully analyzed, and none of these extinction events can be attributed to [the collection of biological samples for biological study]”.
Read article in Science.
Image: Many Alpheidae shrimps live deep in the reef and are impossible to collect nonlethally.

Specimen collection: An essential tool

"With our ever-increasing footprint, humans now affect even the most remote corners of Earth. Because an estimated 86% of species on the planet remain unknown, our goal should be to document biodiversity as rigorously as possible through carefully planned collections so that it can be effectively preserved and understood. ”

Previous examples “cited to demonstrate the negative impact of scientific collecting have been carefully analyzed, and none of these extinction events can be attributed to [the collection of biological samples for biological study]”.

Read article in Science.

Image: Many Alpheidae shrimps live deep in the reef and are impossible to collect nonlethally.

Reblogged from neurosciencenews  13 notes
neurosciencenews:

Blocking Brain’s ‘Internal Marijuana’ May Trigger Early Alzheimer’s Deficits
Read the full article Blocking Brain’s ‘Internal Marijuana’ May Trigger Early Alzheimer’s Deficits at NeuroscienceNews.com.
A-beta, a substance suspected as a prime culprit in Alzheimer’s disease, may start impairing learning and memory long before plaques form in the brain.
The research is in Neuron. (full access paywall)
Research: “β-Amyloid Inhibits E-S Potentiation through Suppression of Cannabinoid Receptor 1-Dependent Synaptic Disinhibition” by Adrienne L. Orr, Jesse E. Hanson, Dong Li, Adam Klotz, Sarah Wright, Dale Schenk, Peter Seubert, and Daniel V. Madison in Neuron. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.04.039
Image: Researchers analyzed A-beta’s effects on the hippocampus. Credit Gray’s Anatomy.

neurosciencenews:

Blocking Brain’s ‘Internal Marijuana’ May Trigger Early Alzheimer’s Deficits

Read the full article Blocking Brain’s ‘Internal Marijuana’ May Trigger Early Alzheimer’s Deficits at NeuroscienceNews.com.

A-beta, a substance suspected as a prime culprit in Alzheimer’s disease, may start impairing learning and memory long before plaques form in the brain.

The research is in Neuron. (full access paywall)

Research: “β-Amyloid Inhibits E-S Potentiation through Suppression of Cannabinoid Receptor 1-Dependent Synaptic Disinhibition” by Adrienne L. Orr, Jesse E. Hanson, Dong Li, Adam Klotz, Sarah Wright, Dale Schenk, Peter Seubert, and Daniel V. Madison in Neuron. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.04.039

Image: Researchers analyzed A-beta’s effects on the hippocampus. Credit Gray’s Anatomy.

Reblogged from futuristech-info  129 notes
futuristech-info:





Breakthrough allows future drugs to break through antibiotic resistant bacterial cells 
New research published today in the journal Nature reveals an Achilles’ heel in the defensive barrier which surrounds drug-resistant bacterial cells.The findings pave the way for a new wave of drugs that kill superbugs by bringing down their defensive walls rather than attacking the bacteria itself. It means that in future, bacteria may not develop drug-resistance at all.READ MORE ON UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

futuristech-info:

Breakthrough allows future drugs to break through antibiotic resistant bacterial cells 

New research published today in the journal Nature reveals an Achilles’ heel in the defensive barrier which surrounds drug-resistant bacterial cells.

The findings pave the way for a new wave of drugs that kill superbugs by bringing down their defensive walls rather than attacking the bacteria itself. It means that in future, bacteria may not develop drug-resistance at all.

READ MORE ON UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA